In commercial farming, flowering can be induced artificially, and the early harvesting of the main fruit can encourage the development of a second crop of smaller fruits. Once removed during cleaning, the top of the pineapple can be planted in soil and a new plant will grow. Slips and suckers are planted commercially
The advantages of the Persian lime in commercial agriculture compared to the key lime are the larger size, absence of seeds, hardiness, absence of thorns on the bushes, and longer fruit shelf life. They are less acidic than key limes and do not have the bitterness that lends to the key lime's unique flavor. Persian limes are commercialized primarily in six sizes, known as 110's, 150's, 175's, 200's, 230's and 250's.
Every year, the product is consumed in more markets. Its intense flavour with strong, naturally concentrated aroma makes passion fruit stand out from other tropical fruits. It has become an important ingredient in world cuisine, thereby boosting the product's marketing and demand.
The value of passionfruit varies widely, prices can range from $14 to $90 per 7 kg carton. Prices are highest from September to November when very little fruit is harvested, and are lowest during the peak harvest periods through summer, autumn and winter.
Passion fruit is good in vitamin C, providing about 30 mg per 100 g. Vitamin-C (ascorbic acid) is a powerful water soluble anti-oxidant. Consumption of fruits rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against flu-like infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals.
The fruit carry very good levels of vitamin-A (provides about 1274 IU per 100 g), and flavonoid antioxidants such as ß-carotene and cryptoxanthin-ß. Current research studies suggest that these compounds have antioxidant properties, and along with vitamin A are essential for good eye-sight.
Cattle today are the basis of a multibillion-dollar industry worldwide. The international trade in beef for 2014 was over $30 billion and represented only 23% of world beef production.
The production of milk, which is also made into cheese, butter, yogurt, and other dairy products, is comparable in economic size to beef production, and provides an important part of the food supply for many of the world's people. Cattle hides, used for leather to make shoes, couches and clothing, are another widespread product.
The global demand for avocados continues to grow. In Europe, the US and Australia, the avocado has rid itself of its image as an 'exotic', having become more of a mainstream product. On the European market, prices were high, not just because of growing demand, but also due to delayed ships. In the United States, consumption is on the rise, but the acreage is decreasing. Growers in California are facing water shortages. The gap between supply and demand is filled with import from neighbouring Mexico. In several producing countries, such as Spain and New Zealand, growers are lining up at the nurseries. Waiting times run up to a year in Spain, and nearly two years in New Zealand. Various countries on the American continents are focusing on increased production, with a growing acreage in Peru, a larger harvest in Mexico, and Colombia exporting for a higher amount of dollars than last year. Toward the end of June, Peru gained access to the Chinese market. Israel and Costa Rica imposed import restrictions. Costa Rica is boycotting a number of countries out of fear for sunblotch, and Israel bans all imported avocados.
Colombia exports more than ever .In the first quarter of last year, the export from the Latin American country to Europe amounted to 4.6 million dollars. The export was thus higher than last year's total export, which amounted to 4 million. The main destinations are the Netherlands, Great Britain, Spain and France. The yield per hectare, 8.8 tonnes, is higher than for countries like Chile and Peru.
Wood very durable, resistant to fungi. Used for poles, beams, trusses, columns, roofs, doors, window frames, flooring, planking, panelling, and staircases, and other constructional work. One of the best timbers for furniture and cabinet-making, wagon and railway carriages. Due to its better shape-retention ability, teak is popular in marine constructions and is a class by itself for boat- and ship building, particularly for decking. On account of its resistance to chemicals, teak articles are used in chemical laboratories; suitable for casks and vats for shipping corrosive liquids and for storing vegetable oils, fruit syrups, chutneys etc.
It has been estimated that at least 100,000 ha more could potentially be planted with teak in Central America: 25% located in Guatemala, 25% in Nicaragua, 20% in Costa Rica and 15% in El Salvador and Panama. With a rotation period of 25 years, these countries could be harvesting 5,720 ha/year or, approximately 1.43 million/m3/ of roundwood.
World production of cassava root was estimated to be 184 million tonnes in 2002, rising to 230 million tonnes in 2008. The majority of production in 2002 was in Africa, where 99.1 million tonnes were grown; 51.5 million tonnes were grown in Asia; and 33.2 million tonnes in Latin America and the Caribbean, specifically Jamaica. Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava. However, based on the statistics from the FAO of the United Nations, Thailand is the largest exporting country of dried cassava, with a total of 77% of world export in 2005. The second-largest exporting country is Vietnam, with 13.6%, followed by Indonesia (5.8%) and Costa Rica (2.1%).
Consumption is increasing as societies in India, China and Latin America continue to be Westernized. Currently, consumer intake of coffee stands at 141.6 million bags of beans; but by 2020, coffee demand is slated to rise to 175.8 million bags (each weighs approximately 132 lb.).
Cocoa beans, cocoa butter and cocoa powder are traded on two world exchanges: ICE Futures U.S. and NYSE Liffe Futures and Options. The London market is based on West African cocoa and New York on cocoa predominantly from Southeast Asia. Cocoa is the world's smallest soft commodity market. The future price of cocoa butter and cocoa powder is determined by multiplying the bean price by a ratio. The combined butter and powder ratio has tended to be around 3.5. If the combined ratio falls below 3.2 or so, production ceases to be economically viable and some factories cease extraction of butter and powder and trade exclusively in cocoa liquor. Cocoa beans can be held in storage for several years in bags or in bulk, during which the ownership can change several times, as the cocoa is traded much the same as metal or other commodities, to gain profit for the owner.
Papaya trees bear fruit throughout the year. "Skips" in the fruit column caused by temporary sterility may occur during hot, dry summer periods and may cause fruit shortages in winter. The plants will continue to bear for many years, but yields usually decline as the trees age, and picking becomes difficult. In commercial production, fields are usually replanted or abandoned after three years. Papayas marketed in or exported from Hawaii are regulated by a Federal Marketing Order that sets fruit size and quality requirements. In the United States, Hawaii is the major producer and supplier of papaya, with 2500 acres in 1989. It is also estimated that there were 350 acres of papaya grown in Dade County, Florida in 1987-1988.
About 80 percent of the 9.7 million ha of rubber plantations established worldwide for latex production in 1999, are in Southeast Asia; 72 percent of the total (or 5.2 million ha) are in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand (IRSG 1999). With an overall area of more than 3.5 million ha, Indonesia is now the world’s largest producer of natural rubber.
Rubberwood has traditionally been used as a cheap source of woodfuel in most of the countries where rubber plantations are abundant, such as for industrial brick burning, tobacco curing, or for fuelling of locomotive engines. Due to lack of durability, rubberwood was rarely used as utility timber except in timber-scarce countries. After a number of problems had been overcome with the help of applied research, particularly in connection with wood seasoning and preservation but also related to the small size of logs, rubberwood developed as one of the most successful export timbers of Southeast Asia.
As a commercial crop, the long period from planting to full bearing has discouraged planting. The price of the primary product, copra (dried coconut kernel), is subject to world commodity markets, and the present price for copra has been depressed in the face of competition from other vegetable oils.
The market for copra and coconut oil is worldwide. All large and medium-sized producers including PNG, Solomon Islands, and Samoa have oil mills and export mainly the oil. World exports of coconut oil in 2002 was 1822 million mt (2 million t) compared to only 0.160 mt (0.176 t) of copra exported.
The primary coconut products traded internationally are derived from the fruit: copra and desiccated coconut, coconut cream and protein, whole mature nuts, coir, and activated carbon from shells. Young drinking nuts, coconut water (fresh, canned or frozen), and palm sugar are important in local economies and have a ready market in developed countries with large Asian populations. The other primary products in local economies include shell charcoal, mature nuts for cooking and food uses, brooms, ropes, and coconut shell products, some of which may find niche markets overseas. For many Pacific island states, copra and its by-product, copra press cake, are the only important exports.